Additives in Tobacco Products

Additives in tobacco products 

Nearly all commercial tobacco products contain chemical additives. As long ago as the sixteenth century, Spanish sailors applied licorice water to tobacco as a preservative. 

Today, both cigarette and smokeless tobacco manufacturers publicly acknowledge the use of hundreds of additives in their products. The modern cigarette contains about 10 percent additives by weight, mostly in the form of sugars, humectants, ammonia compounds, cocoa, and licorice.

Smokeless tobacco likewise incorporates moisteners, sweeteners, and flavours such as cherry juice. These additives may affect the flavour of the product, sensory properties such as smoothness and impact, and other important product characteristics.

 Role of Additives in Cigarettes

 The flavour of a tobacco is primarily determined by the tobacco leaf blend, while additives are used to modify or enhance tobacco flavour characteristics. Menthol is the only commonly recognized tobacco flavour category, although vanilla, cherry, orange, and other product flavours have been introduced commercially. Most additives are used in very small amounts-less than .01 percent of total weight. As a result, although the cumulative effect of additives on tobacco flavour may be significant, it is often difficult or impossible to assess the impact of specific flavorants.

Additives perform a number of roles in addition to altering product flavours. 

Some additives demonstrate properties that significantly alter product chemistry. A number of additives in both cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products are used for modification of “smoke pH,” which is a measure of its acid/base chemistry. Increased “smoke pH” allows more nicotine to be present in the chemical freebase form, which is more readily available for absorption and use in the body (much as crack cocaine is a more potent freebase form of cocaine). Other additives increase or alter the effects of nicotine, or produce their own effects on the central nervous system and brain. For example, pyridine, a cigarette additive, acts as a depressant in much the same way that nicotine does, although it is less potent.

Manufacturers have used modified forms of tobacco, in combination with other design changes, to reduce the amount of tar produced per cigarette and to cut production costs.

Physiological and Behavioural Effects  

Additives may produce important changes to the effects of tobacco, altering dependence, toxicity, or use behaviours. For example, additives may increase the addictive character of tobacco smoke by altering the effects of nicotine or by exerting other pharmacologic effects on the user.

 Menthol has been shown to enhance drug absorption and demonstrates effects on metabolism that could alter the pharmacological action of other substances in tobacco smoke.

Changes in chemical composition of tobacco products could alter the site and rate of uptake of nicotine and other constituents. For example, a greater percentage of nicotine delivered in freebase form may result in increased rates of absorption in the mouth as well as faster absorption from the lower respiratory tract to the brain. These changes could alter the intensity of response and increase dependence. The addition of bronchodilators to cigarettes may have similar effects by allowing deeper inhalation and deposition of smoke constituents in areas of the respiratory tract where they are more likely to be absorbed.

The perception of smoother smoke may facilitate increased or deeper inhalation of tobacco smoke by removing physical barriers. Similarly, reduced irritation may encourage or support increased frequency of use.

Published research suggests that increasing ease of inhalation may be linked to increased rates of initiation among youth. Candy-like flavours, such as cherry, may also be used to target youth.

Do Your Products Contain Any of These Dangerous Chemicals?

Go to your bathroom and check RIGHT NOW! We think you will be VERY SURPRISED…

These are some of the dangerous chemicals that people in our society are using every day and are not being told about how dangerous they are. You will want to avoid them to enjoy good health. They can cause cancer, nervous system damage, birth defects, and much more. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health listed 884 dangerous chemicals, and according to The Safe Shoppers Bible, 400 have been identified in human tissue. “The greater the exposure, the greater the risk!” This is a PARTIAL LIST of some of the most commonly used chemicals in the personal care industry. See if your shampoo, conditioner, soap, mouthwash, toothpaste, lotions, household cleaners, etc. contain any of the chemicals on the list. I can bet you the products you are currently using contain some, if not all, of the dangerous chemicals on this list below.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)- (Engine Degreaser! In many personal care products, and most shampoos). Well-known as a skin and scalp irritant, easily absorbed in eyes, brain, and liver… may have harmful long term effects, possible carcinogen, could retard healing… causes cataracts in adults and keeps children’s eyes from developing properly.

Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES)- (in many personal care products and many shampoos) Both SLS and SLES are potential carcinogens and may form dioxane when interacting with other chemicals. Clinical studies show both of these chemicals causing hair loss.

Propylene Glycol- (Industrial Antifreeze! In many personal care products, and most shampoos and many conditioners). The Material Safety Date Sheet warns users to avoid skin contact… strong irritant, can cause hair loss, cataracts, liver abnormalities and kidney damage. This is called a “humectant” in cosmetics.

Aluminum- (in antiperspirants–deodorants, antacids, and antiseptics) Linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.

Cocomide DEA or DEA- (many products… up to 600) A known carcinogen.

Sodium Fluoride- (in toothpaste) Can cause death when ingested… lots of research… potential carcinogen.

Mineral Oil- Comes from crude oil (petroleum) used in the industry as a metal cutting fluid. May suffocate the skin by forming an oil film. Healthy skin needs to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide. This process should not be inhibited. Holding large amounts of moisture in the skin can “flood” the biology, and may result in immature, unhealthy, sensitive skin that dries out easily. Studies show those who work around this ingredient have a greater chance of being diagnosed with cancer.

Petroleum- Same properties as Mineral Oil. Industrially, it is used as a grease component. Bentonite or Kaolin- (in cosmetics and facial masks) May suffocate the skin, stopping the release of toxins. Used by fire departments to suffocate forest fires.

Glycerin- When applied to the skin, it draws moisture from inside the skin, and holds it on the surface for a better “feel”. Dries the skin from the inside out. This can age you quickly.

Collagen- (skin care) May suffocate the skin. Most derived from cow hides and ground up chicken feet. Most products are useless.

Flavors/Fragrances (artificial)- Synthetic chemicals used to enhance aroma and taste in personal care products… some are potentially carcinogenic and may cause brain damage.

Colors (coal tar dyes)- (in cosmetics) May cause eye damage, potential carcinogen, can have lead and arsenic in the formation… possible link to lymphoma.

Laureth (ethoxylated), or PEG- (in soaps and shampoos) May contain Dioxane (potential carcinogen), estrogen mimic, endocrine disrupter.

Dioxins- Potential carcinogen, possible transfer of dioxin to product from container contamination and/or when SLS goes through the process of ethoxylation… This process makes the product more mild, but dioxin can form. Anytime you see a capital “E” in the product line, this process has taken place (possible link to Vietnam Veterans and cancer epidemic, due to dioxin in agent orange).

Bar Soaps- Made from animal fat and lye. May let bacteria feed and grow in it. May corrode & dry the skin.

Toluene- (in nail polish) Irritant to skin and respiratory tract. It may cause liver damage… endocrine disrupter… potential carcinogen and can cause birth defects.

Formaldehyde- (in many cosmetics and personal care products) A toxic irritant, known carcinogen (causes cancer), used as a preservative.

Benzoic or Benzyl- (in cosmetics) Potential carcinogen, endocrine disrupters, birth defects.

Fluorocarbons- (used a propellants in hairsprays and deodorants) May produce upper respiratory tract irritation.

Lanolin- (in cosmetics and lotions) This lotion can cause allergic reactions and skin rash.

Talc- (in cosmetics and many personal care products) Chemically similar to asbestos. Talc has been shown to cause uteral and ovarian cancer.

“Did you know fluoride in your toothpaste could actually kill you and/or your children?” Children have died from swallowing toothpaste. That’s why there’s a warning label now. Check your toothpaste box. It probably says, “Keep out of reach of children. If swallowed, contact a poison control center immediately!”

“Is it possible you are actually using Engine Degreaser or Garage Floor Cleaner to wash your hair and brush your teeth with?” You are if there’s Sodium Lauryl or Laureth Sulfate (SLS or SLES) in your shampoo and toothpaste because that’s exactly what those ingredients are! But it gets worse. SLS & SLES are carcinogenic, can cause children’s eyes to develop abnormally, cataracts and even hair loss! Also, check your bubble baths, shaving creams, facial/body cleansers and more for SLS or SLES.

“Could you be accidentally rubbing antifreeze and/or brake fluid all over your children and yourself?” You are if there is Propylene Glycol in your moisturizers, hair conditioners, wrinkle creams, baby wipes, lotions, etc. Look at a container of Prestone Antifreeze. It says “Propylene Glycol”. If your cat drinks it, it will die. So what’s it doing to you? Well, for one, it’s been proven to cause liver and kidney damage. Even though we put it on the skin, it gets into the body and blood. Just like a “nicotine patch” you put on the skin to stop smoking. It works by getting nicotine into the blood.

“Women… are you using products that actually age and wrinkle your skin (face & body) more rapidly?” You are if you’re using moisturizers that contain mineral oil, elastin, collagen, glycerin or petroleum (and also foundations that contain forms of clay). These ingredients have a high molecular weight. They suffocate the skin by keeping oxygen out and toxins in. Two ingredients in cosmetics, bentonite and kaolin, are actually used by fire departments to suffocate fires! Also, blush can contain talc, and eye mascara can contain coal tar… both can cause cancer! Talc is also in baby powders and other powders which are linked to ovarian cancer. Some eye shadows can cause cataracts and permanently impaired vision.

“Could the underarm deodorant you’re using be linked to Alzheimer’s disease & breast cancer?” It could if it has aluminum in it.

“Can the Mouthwash you’re using be linked to Oral/Throat Cancer?” Children die every month from drinking it.

“Are you using a mineral supplement that contains 5 toxic poisons?” (Arsenic, Mercury, Lead, Cadmium and Aluminum)

“Did you know that CBS recently did an entire news special on a cancer causing ingredient called DEA?” It’s in most every brand of shampoo, bubble bath, and shaving cream we’ve inspected… but it doesn’t have to be… So why is it there?

Also, Beware of These Misleading but Frequently Used Cosmetic Terms:

Hypoallergenic Products- Personal care products formulated with fewer ingredients that could trigger an “allergic response”. The prefix “hypo-” means “less than”, and the word hypoallergenic tells the consumer that the manufacturer believes the product has fewer allergens than other products. There are no federal regulations or guidelines defining allergens. For the consumer, this term as applied to cosmetics or personal care products is Often Inconclusive.

Natural Cosmetics or Natural Personal Care Products – No artificial ingredients, pure, or from nature. There is NO LEGAL definition for “natural”, which is why you see it everywhere. A chemist’s definition of organic simply requires that the molecule contain carbon. There are no guidelines surrounding what can or cannot be inside a “natural” product. Most cosemetics and personal care products labeled “natural” still contain preservatives, coloring agents, and other ingredients that really are very unnatural. The term “natural” is more meaningful when accompanied by the words “safe” and “effective”. (Poison Ivy is “natural”).

Stop Smoking Products – Fighting Nicotine With Nicotine

What the rising cost of cigarettes, and the increasing difficulty in finding public places which permit smoking has not done for millions of smokers, clear signs of deteriorating health might. When walking fifty yards across the mall parking lot at Christmas time is no longer an option; or hiring a landscaping service because the yard work is now too strenuous seems like the way to go; or the annual physical keeps getting postponed because of what it might reveal, the impetus for kicking the habit might finally get into high gear.

And the moment when smokers finally realize the seriousness of their health situation is the same moment in which they are most vulnerable to racing to the nearest pharmacy aisle devoted to stop smoking products, and empting their wallets. Will buying any or all of those stop smoking products make a difference in their odds of successfully defeating their nicotine demons?

Studies have shown that nicotine ranks right up there with heroin in terms of addictiveness. The nicotine in tobacco smoke enters the bloodstream through the lungs, heads for the brain, and settles comfortably on certain neural receptors, which tell the brain and other organs to start releasing all sorts of interesting things. The most important, however, is dopamine.

Dopamine is the neurotransmitter associated with “rewards.” Dopamine lets us associate certain experiences, like eating, with feeling good so that we will continue to do them. Dopamine is necessary to our survival, but it can also be our downfall. When dopamine tells us something feels good, we want more and more of it. Addiction is a real possibility.

In the case of nicotine, the more a person smokes, the more neural receptors friendly to nicotine he or she develops, and the more they demand to be fed. Do the stop smoking products really address this situation?

Most stop smoking products available without a prescription are themselves nicotine-based. The gum, lozenges, sprays, inhalers, and, of course, patches, are all designed to allow a smoker to ease out a nicotine addiction without suffering too strongly from withdrawal. Stop smoking products will level out the nicotine cravings so that they are tolerable, and keep the body supplied with a small amount of nicotine while it detoxifies from the chemicals which have accumulated over years of smoking.

Nicotine-based stop smoking products [] should never be used in combination with cigarettes or with each other; doing so can easily result in a nicotine overdose. And the use of each of the stop smoking products will depend on the strength of the nicotine it contains; so if you have decided to use one of the stop smoking products pay attention to the instructions which accompany it. Don’t think all stop smoking products work the same way.

Even if you find that stop smoking products have helped you lick you nicotine cravings, you will not be assured of remaining addiction free unless you make a commitment to behavioral modification. You need to learn, and eliminate the emotional reasons for your nicotine dependency if you are ever to become fully comfortable as a non-smoker.

Nicotine Replacement Therapy

One of the most popular means of quitting smoking is by using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT’s). This is a broad category that covers patches, lozenges, gum and other means of introducing nicotine into the body without the use of tobacco products.

Nicotine replacement products work by introducing nicotine into the body through contact with the skin or lungs and provide the nicotine your body’s craving without the harmful gases and other harmful byproducts of smoking. NRT is not a sure fire method to smoking cessation, though, as it only suppresses the body’s craving for nicotine and does not treat the psychological aspect of nicotine addiction.

Nicotine replacement patches are an extremely popular way to quit smoking. The patch is placed on the upper arm or the side of the abdomen and left there for the manufacturer recommended time period. The patch in infused with nicotine and transmit the drug through the skin into the body over the course of time. Smokers will not notice a dramatic lessening of their cravings, but withdrawal symptoms will become more manageable. As with any other medication, patches have side effects, some patients even report that the adhesive used on the patch causes painful skin irritation.

Nicotine gum is another popular means of delivering nicotine without the use of tobacco. Nicotine gum, like nicotine patches, contains nicotine, but none of the harmful carcinogens found in cigarettes. The gum is chewed for a brief time, and then held against the cheek and gum. Patients often report a tingling sensation in the area where the gum is held. Manufacturers state that this is normal and is caused by the gum transmitting nicotine into the body. Once the tingling sensation subsides, the gum will need to be chewed again for a few minutes and then held between the cheek and gum once more. A single piece of gum should last several hours.

Inhalers work much like the inhalers used by asthmatics. It delivers nicotine to the lungs in a mist form, which is then absorbed through the lining of the lungs. Nasal sprays work in a similar fashion. Inhaled forms of nicotine usually have a shorter duration than patches and gum.

It is important to understand that nicotine replacement therapies will neither force you to stop smoking, nor completely eliminate withdrawal symptoms. There will be uncomfortable symptoms to endure and the desire to light a cigarette only lessens, it never completely goes away. Other smoking cessation methods may need to be used to completely stop smoking.